Definitions Cookies are brief text fragments (letters and/or numbers) that allow web servers to memorise user (browser) information to be reused during the current site visit (session cookies) or at a later time, even days later (persistent cookies). According to user preferences, cookies are memorised by an individual browser on the specific device being used (computer, tablet, smartphone). Similar technology, such as web beacon, clear GIFs and all forms of localised storage introduced with HTML5, can be used to collect information on user behaviour and the use of services. From here on in this document, cookies and all similar technology mentioned above shall be collectively referred to as "cookies".
Types of Cookie According to cookie characteristics and use, we can identify various categories:
- Technical Cookies. These cookies are used solely for the purpose of "transmitting information over an electronic communications network, or when strictly necessary to the supplier of an internet-based service who has been explicitly asked by a subscriber or user to provide that particular service" (cf. Art. 122, Para. 1, Italian Civil Code). These cookies are not used for any other purpose and are normally directly installed by the owner or the manager of the website. They can be subdivided into: navigation or session cookies, which ensure the normal navigation and use of the website; analytics cookies, classed as technical cookies when used directly by the site manager to collect information, in aggregate form, on the number of users and on how users actually visit the site; functionality cookies, which according to select criteria improve the user's navigation experience. Installation of these cookies does not require prior user consent, though, in accordance with Art. 13 of the Italian Civil Code, the site, where these are the only such devices used, must provide notice of their use in the manner its managers see fit.
- Targeting Cookies. These cookies aim to create user associated profiles and are used in the sending of advertising messages matched to a user's net navigation preferences. Given the particular invasiveness of these devices with regard to a user's privacy, European and Italian law states that users must be properly informed about their use and must express their valid consent. These cookies are regulated by Art. 122 of the Italian Civil Code which states that "the archiving of information in the terminal device belonging to a contractor or to a user or the accessing of already archived information are allowed solely with the express consent of the user who has been informed by simplified notice in line with Art. 13 Para. 3 (Art. 122, Para. 1, Italian Civil Code). This site does not use targeting cookies.
- Third Party Cookies When visiting a website, a user may receive cookies from that site (first-party) and cookies from other sources (third-party). Notable examples are the presence of "iframe", "script" or "social plugins" for Facebook, Twitter, Google and LinkedIn, which are directly generated as part of the visited hosting site by the site itself. The most common use among the social plugins is geared towards the sharing of content on social networks. The presence of these plugins means that cookies are transmitted to and from all the sites managed by third parties. The management of the information collected by "third parties" is conducted in line with that stated within the notices relating to such, of which consultation is advised.
Google Analytics This site also comprises some components transmitted by Google Analytics, a web traffic analysis service offered by Google, Inc. ("Google"). Here too we are dealing with third party cookies collected and managed anonymously so as to monitor and improve host sites' performance (performance cookies). Google Analytics uses "cookies" to collect and analyse anonymously the website use behavioural information (including user IPs). This information is collected by Google Analytics, which uses it to create reports relative to the activity on websites. This site uses Google Analytics to monitor the site and to collect personal identification information. Google does not link the IP address to any other data possessed by Google nor does it seek to link an IP address to a user identity. Google may pass this information to third parties when this is required by law or when such third parties handle the information on behalf of Google.
Duration of Cookies Some cookies (session cookies) deactivate at browser closure or at logout. Other cookies "survive" browser closure and are available during the following visits by the user. These cookies are called persistent cookies and their lifespan is fixed by the server at the moment of their creation. In some cases an expiry date is fixed, in others their duration is unlimited.
Cookie Management Users can decide to accept cookies or not by adjusting their browser's settings. Watch out: disabling either totally or partially technical cookies may compromise site functions for registered users. On the contrary, a site's public content may be fully exploited when cookies are disabled. Disabling third party cookies has no effect on one's navigation of a site. Cookie settings can be adjusted specifically for various sites and applications. Furthermore the best browsers allow you to adjust various settings for both first party and third party cookies.